In today's rapid economic development, with the continuous improvement of living standards and the diversification of needs, consumers are not only satisfied with the quality of goods, but also the packaging of goods has become an important focus of their purchase. Especially after China's accession to the International Trade Organization, the world has become more closely connected, and trade between countries has become increasingly frequent. Commodity packaging plays a pivotal role in enhancing the competitiveness of China's export commodities. By reviewing the development history of packaging, the positive and negative impact of green packaging on China's foreign trade is discussed, the shortcomings and drawbacks of China's packaging industry are analyzed, and some feasible suggestions are put forward for their solutions.
Key words: export packaging; green packaging( Refillable Bottle );sustainable development
In recent years, China's packaging industry has developed rapidly. Some new and environmentally friendly materials are being used in packaging, and packaging design is becoming more and more humanized, taking care of customers' consumption psychology. However, in the international environment, green trade barriers have higher requirements for commodity packaging, and the losses caused by unqualified packaging of China's export commodities every year cannot be ignored. Therefore, under the overall requirement of green packaging, China's packaging industry still has a long way to go.
1 . The impact of green packaging( Refillable Bottle ) on China's export trade;
(1) The meaning of green packaging( Refillable Bottle ):
Green packaging( Refillable Bottle ) refers to packaging that is recyclable, meets the requirements of sustainable development, and is harmless to human health and the ecological environment. It is also called pollution-free packaging and environmentally friendly packaging. Harmless and easy to recycle, it can reduce environmental pollution, maintain ecological balance, and conform to the requirements of international environmental protection. It is a new trend in the development of the packaging industry in the future.
(2) The impact of green packaging on China's export trade:
Under the general environment of international trade, the impact of green packaging on Chinese export enterprises has two sides, both positive and negative.
① The Positive Influence of Green Packaging on China's Export Trade：
Stimulate innovation and raise the level of technology. Compared with traditional packaging, green packaging has stricter requirements on product packaging. In order to improve their product competitiveness and obtain more profits, enterprises will actively adopt some innovative methods to develop new environmentally friendly materials and environmentally friendly processes to make product packaging. In this way, not only can they obtain considerable profits, but also improve China's innovative ability has cultivated a large number of innovative talents.
Promote the transformation and upgrading of related industries. No industry exists independently, but is closely related to other industries. "One small move affects the whole body." The development of the packaging industry will definitely drive the development of other related industries. For example, environmentally friendly packaging materials can be used to make other products and drive the development of handicrafts; the development and improvement of packaging machinery can drive the development of machinery manufacturing and so on.
Reasonable use of green barriers to optimize the industrial structure. China can formulate relevant laws and regulations, use green barriers, increase the entry threshold of related industries, prevent heavily polluting and poor-quality garbage products from entering China, find high-quality partners, protect national enterprises, and optimize Chinese industrial structure.
② Positive impact of green packaging on China's export trade：
The volume of export trade decreased. Compared with developed countries, China's economic and technological level is still very backward, and the packaging of many export commodities cannot meet the requirements of green packaging. According to statistics, China's annual losses caused by packaging that cannot meet the requirements of foreign developed countries are nearly $24 billion. Among China's export commodities, flowers, fresh fruits, meat and vegetables account for a large proportion, and these commodities have high requirements for packaging and freshness preservation. Due to rough packaging, the transportation cost increases and the commodity damage rate increases, resulting in huge economic loss. In addition, China's mechanical and electrical products such as lamps, refrigerators, and televisions are mainly exported to some developed countries and regions such as Japan, Europe and the United States. However, in 1996, the customs of the EU countries formulated a policy of refusing entry of products without the CE mark. To a certain extent, it restricts the export of China's mechanical and electrical products.
The export market shrinks. China's export trade is mainly some primary products and finished products with low technical content. Some developed or relatively developed countries such as Japan, South Korea, the European Union, Southeast Asia, and the United States are the main markets of China's foreign trade. These countries have high requirements for packaging. It is relatively high, and in order to protect domestic enterprises, some green packaging barriers will be set up. Since the development of China's packaging industry has not yet met the requirements of these developed countries in a short period of time, it is difficult for many commodities to enter these countries for sale, which relatively reduces China's export market share.
The cost of export products has increased, weakening the international competitive advantage. In order to meet the requirements of green packaging and comply with the packaging regulations of importing countries, China must increase expenditures on the development of new packaging materials, innovate packaging manufacturing processes, introduce innovative talents, and reposition and design packaging to achieve green packaging. requirements. However, China's export commodities are mainly labor-intensive products, and the abundant domestic labor resources reduce the cost of products. Therefore, China's export commodities have a comparative advantage of low prices, but this advantage disappears with the expenditure of these expenses. , the profits of Chinese export enterprises have been reduced, and their business enthusiasm has been affected. When an export company cannot meet the packaging requirements of other countries, or the cost of meeting the requirements increases to the point where it is unprofitable, it may no longer enter the international market, which will affect the development of China's foreign trade.
Green packaging barriers are likely to cause trade friction. At present, in order to protect domestic enterprises, many countries use green packaging barriers to resist the entry of foreign products. Various countries have also formulated various laws and regulations, and the requirements for the environmental protection of domestic and imported goods are becoming more and more stringent: For example, in 2000, the European Union stipulated that packaging products that cannot be taken or cannot be recycled can no longer be used in the market; France also stipulates that Manufacturers and importers must achieve at least a 70% recycling rate for waste packaging. Although international environmental protection regulations and standards and international environmental protection conventions have been formulated, due to the different stages of countries, the level of economic development and the level of science and technology are different, so their environmental protection technology level and the funds invested in the development of environmental protection materials are also different, especially to meet the needs of developed countries. National environmental protection standards, some developing countries with backward technology must pay additional fees such as inspection fees, updated raw materials, certification fees, technical improvements, etc., which has caused many international trade frictions. As the largest developing country in the world, compared with some developed countries in Europe and the United States, there is still a big gap in packaging technology, packaging capital investment and packaging standard formulation. Therefore, green packaging barriers have an increasing impact on China's international trade.
2 . The Present Situation and Problems of China's Packaging Industry：
After years of development, China's packaging industry has experienced a development process from scratch, from small to large. At present, it has already entered the ranks of the world's packaging powers and basically met the requirements of the international advanced level. Since the reform and opening up, China's packaging industry has adhered to the road of internationalization, actively sought international cooperation, learned foreign advanced packaging technology and enterprise management models, and introduced advanced equipment. Some packaging companies close to the international scale and level have emerged continuously, and the international market has emerged. The export volume of packaging machinery products and packaging materials is also increasing year by year. Although China's packaging industry has made remarkable achievements in recent years, it still faces many problems.
（1）Not paying enough attention to packaging:
In today's society, consumers are no longer satisfied with only paying attention to the quality of the product, but have put forward higher requirements for the product. A good product packaging can often bring unexpected results to product sales. On the one hand, many enterprises in China do not pay enough attention to commodity packaging, thinking that "the aroma of wine is not afraid of deep alleys", and only value the quality of commodities. Quality is important, but the role of packaging cannot be ignored. On the other hand, many packaging companies in China do not realize the importance of informatization construction today when informatization construction is deeply rooted in the hearts of the people, and still use the old business model, ignoring the training of packaging talents. In addition to enterprises, there are very few schools with packaging majors. The training of packaging talents cannot keep up, and people's packaging awareness is weak, which seriously hinders the development of China's packaging industry.
(2) Packaging consumes a lot of energy and wastes a lot:
Due to the large population base in China, a large number of products are consumed in the process of production and life, and the packaging of these products is indispensable in all links from production to distribution, which consumes a lot of energy and resources. In addition, due to reasons such as backward packaging technology and excessive packaging, material resources are seriously wasted. Since straw pulp accounts for a large proportion of the materials used in corrugated cardboard made in China, in the corrugated cardboard boxes produced in China, the five-layer and The utilization rate of seven-layer corrugated cardboard has reached more than 85%. In some economically developed countries in the West, they mainly use wood pulp as raw material to make corrugated cardboard, which has better physical and mechanical properties, and 89% of them use three-layer corrugated cardboard to produce packaging boxes. Assuming that 20 billion square meters of cartons are also produced every year, China will waste at least 44 million tons of corrugated cardboard than the western economically developed countries.
(3) The loss caused by improper packaging is serious:
Over the years, Chinese foreign trade companies have often had economic disputes with foreign companies due to unqualified packaging, resulting in claims and huge losses. In addition, poor packaging has seriously affected China's reputation. In 1986, a batch of chemical raw materials from China were exported to Germany, and the raw materials leaked due to damaged packaging. Seriously damaged China's reputation and international image. It has put a lot of pressure on China's export trade. Chinese products have also lost a large market due to poor packaging. In today's society, international competition is becoming increasingly fierce. If you want to gain a firm foothold in the international market, you must make the packaging high-quality, otherwise Chinese products can only endure the passive situation that the products, packaging, and prices are not on the same level. Due to packaging problems, good products can only be classified as low-end products, and there is no opportunity for competition, so our good products are submerged, which is a huge loss for us.
(4) Insufficient innovation ability and backward technical level:
After years of development, China has become a major packaging country in the world, but there is still a big gap with developed countries in terms of innovation level and packaging technology. Some mid-to-high-end packaging materials and packaging machinery at the forefront of technology are still monopolized by developed countries. A large number of enterprises in China are not aware of the importance of packaging innovation and technical personnel training, and the technical level is still not on the same level as that of developed countries. Well-known companies in some developed countries pay more attention to the cultivation of innovation capabilities and the introduction of technical talents, rely on intellectual property rights to develop and grow, and use these intellectual property rights and management rights to control other companies to enter the market and charge expensive "entry fees". This discourages many SMEs.
(5) Packaging-related laws, regulations and standards are not perfect:
In terms of packaging legislation, European countries have always been at the forefront of the world. They have formulated laws related to packaging, and they are very detailed, mainly including: the French "Packaging Law", the British "Packaging Waste Regulations", the Netherlands "Packaging Covenant" and Austria's "Packaging Regulations", etc. Under the leadership of European countries, the United States, Japan, Brazil, South Korea and other countries have successively formulated some laws and regulations on packaging, such as Japan's "Packaging Container Recycling Law" and "Renewable Resource Utilization Promotion Law". However, there are very few laws and regulations related to packaging in China, and the difficulty of formulating and implementing packaging regulations has become a problem that cannot be ignored.
In addition, there is a big gap between China's packaging standards and international standards. For example, the update speed of Chinese standards is slow, and it is difficult to be in line with international standards. Moreover, Chinese standards are not practical, difficult to implement, and cannot meet market demand. There are even problems such as contradictions and mismatches among various standards. Some enterprises only pay attention to commodity profits, do superficial formal work, and formulate standards for the sake of standards; when learning foreign packaging standards, they just copy them mechanically, regardless of the actual situation of the enterprise, only pay attention to theory, and ignore practice
3 . Countermeasures for the Development of China's Packaging Industry
Faced with the solid foundation of the rapid development of the packaging industry in recent years and the challenges of green packaging barriers, China's packaging industry still has a long way to go.
（1）Enhance packaging awareness
First of all, we must realize the important role and status of packaging that cannot be ignored in the links of production and consumption. Commodity packaging appears with the emergence of commodity transactions and is the product of the common development of human spiritual civilization and material civilization. With the improvement of people's living standards, packaging is becoming more and more important. And its functional center of gravity has gradually changed. In the past, the function of packaging was only to protect goods for storage and transportation. Now a good packaging can not only promote the sales of goods, but also meet people's aesthetic psychological needs, the importance of packaging is self-evident. Therefore, some measures must be taken to change the concept of enterprises and enhance packaging awareness.
① The government has increased financial support for packaging innovation and given certain encouragement and preferential policies to packaging companies.
② Introduce packaging laws and regulations in line with China's national conditions, formulate reasonable packaging standards, learn from foreign advanced technologies and standards, and be in line with international standards.
③ Pay attention to packaging education, encourage colleges and universities to set up majors related to packaging, pay attention to the training of packaging talents, and accumulate strength for the future development of the packaging industry.
（2）Improve innovation ability and develop new packaging materials:
As mentioned above, China's packaging industry still has a long way to go compared with developed countries in terms of innovation ability and technological level, but as long as we pay attention to the cultivation of innovation ability and catch up, China's packaging industry is expected to occupy an international position. a seat. Especially in recent years, the rise of green packaging has put forward higher requirements for packaging materials. China must develop new environmental protection materials in order to find a suitable path in international trade and promote healthy and rapid economic development.
（3）Improve packaging technology:
China's packaging technology is still relatively backward compared with the international advanced level. To improve the packaging level, we must first start with improving packaging technology, and we should increase capital investment in packaging technology development and research. Enhance the independent innovation ability of packaging enterprises, conduct market research, and research new packaging materials and packaging processes based on consumer demand. At the same time, international cooperation should be strengthened, and foreign advanced technologies and business models should be learned. Instead of copying them mechanically, they should use them flexibly according to the actual situation of domestic enterprises, so as to draw inferences about other cases from one instance. Large-scale packaging companies can set up special packaging technology departments to provide technical support for small and medium-sized enterprises, realize information sharing and rational allocation of resources, improve the overall level of China's packaging industry, and narrow the gap with developed countries.
（4）Enhance green packaging
At present, China's environmental problems are becoming more and more serious, the recycling rate of packaging waste is still very low, and white pollution can be seen everywhere. Therefore, it is imminent to formulate relevant laws and regulations, improve the recycling rate of packaging waste, and promote green packaging. In addition, the implementation of green packaging will enable us to carry out international economic exchanges more smoothly, reduce trade frictions, make Chinese products meet international green standards, and achieve the goal of being in line with international standards. Moreover, green packaging also echoes China's sustainable development strategy. While reducing environmental pollution and ecological damage, it can also save resources and realize the harmonious coexistence between man and nature.